Wednesday, April 23, 2014

Future Energy Generating uses of Quarks

In 1968, deep inelastic scattering experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) showed that the proton contained much smaller, point-like objects (quarks) and was therefore not truly an elementary particle as had been thought earlier.

Quarks have various intrinsic properties, including electric charge, color charge, spin, and mass.  Quarks are the only elementary particles in the Standard Model of particle physics to experience all four fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces (electromagnetism, gravitation, strong interaction, and weak interaction), as well as being the only known particles whose electric charges are not integer multiples of the earlier presumed elementary charge.

So maybe we should allow that much more advanced future technology may gain at least one such force type it can exploit for better usable nontouching forces, to accelerate special frictionless nontouching units attached to loads lifted up special tracks attached to the cables of a geostationary lift system, developments beyond old electromagnetic levitation track trains.

For every quark flavor there is a corresponding type of antiparticle, known as antiquark, that differs from the quark only in that some of its properties have equal magnitude but opposite sign.  All six flavors of quark have been observed in accelerator experiments.  (The top quark was the last to be discovered, first observed at Fermilab in 1995.)

Quarks have fractional electric charges of -1/3 or +2/3 times the elementary charge, depending on flavor.  Up, charm, and top quarks (collectively referred to as up-type quarks) have a charge of +2/3, while down, strange, and bottom quarks have a charge of -1/3.  Antiquarks have the opposite charge to their corresponding quarks.  Since the electric charge of a hadron is the sum of the charges of the constituent quarks, all hadrons have integer charges.  E.g., the hadron constituents of atomic nuclei, neutrons and protons, have charges of 0 and +1 respectively; the neutron is composed of two down quarks and one up quark, and the proton of two up quarks and one down quark.

But before possibly becoming able in the future to selectively use quarks to produce good strong forces to ac/decelerate up/down the supporting cables, the tracks can for now do as we've long done, by simply exploiting electromagnetic forces generated for the units attached to the loads.  Or if descending back to Earth, these can generate electricity to be conducted frictionless up or down the superconducting electric power lines for use elsewhere.

This means that much energy used while being lifted can later be usefully returned to the cable lift system for fresh reuse elsewhere.

This is a guest post.  Questions?  Ask If interested in much more about advanced future folks living quite well in space, ask for DOS compressed email attached FBW.Z

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