SIX ANCIENT INDIAN CATEGORIES OF EXISTANCE

Vaisheshika, or Vaiśeṣika, is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy of ancient India, founded by the sage Kaṇāda or Kana-bhuk, translated into English as atom-eater, around the 2nd century BC,which had also discovered ANCIENT INDIAN ATOMIC THEORY, names six categories of existence-

I.Dravya, substance. II. Guna, quality. III. Karma, motion or activity. IV. Samanya, genus. V. Visesha, difference. VI. Samavaya, intimate relation or co-inherence.
kinds of Substances
Bhutas or elements (1. earth, 2. water, 3. light, 4. air and 5. ether.) 6. Dis, space. 7. Kala, time. 8. Atman, soul. 9. Manas, mind.
Twenty-four Qualities
1. Sabda, sound. 2. Sparsa, tangibility. 3. Rupa, colour. 4. Rasa, taste. 5. Gandha, odour. 6. Parimana, dimension. 7. Sankhya, number. 8. Samyoga, conjunction. 9. Vibhaga, disjunction. 10. Prithaktva, mutual separateness. 11. Gurutva, weight. 12. Dravatva, fluidity. 13. Paratva, priority. 14. Aparatva, posteriority. 15. Sneha,viscidity. 16. Samskara, tendency. 17. Dhi, understanding. 18. Dvesha, aversion. 19. Sukha, pleasure. 20. Duhkha, pain. 21. Ichchha, desire. 22. Dharma, merit. 23. Adharma, demerit. 24. Prayatna, effort.
Tendency is of three kinds :—( 1) Vega or speed, like that which causes the flight of an arrow, etc. (2) Bhavana, that latent impression, caused by experience, which subsequently helps to call forth a memory of the same under favourable circumstances. (3) Sthitasthapakata or elasticity, that which causes return to the former state. When the leaf of the birch or the branch of a tree is first dragged and then let go, it will revert to its former state.
Motion or action is of five kinds 1. Utkshepa, throwing upwards. 2. Avakshepa, throwing downwards. 3, Gamana, going. 4. Prasarana, expansion. 5. Akunchana, contraction.
Genus of two kinds I. Para or the higher, namely, satta, existence. 2. Apara or lower, such as the genus of substance, of quality, and so on.
Viseshas or ultimate differences are those which cause the knowledge that one thing is different from another; and they are infinite in number.They are said to reside in the eternal substances, such as manas, soul, time, space, ether; the paramanus of earth, water, light and air.
Samavaya is eternal relation, such as that between a pot and its colour.
The pairs which are thus intimately related are, the whole and its parts, substance and its qualities, action and its agent, genus and the individual, viseshas and the eternal substances.
Time, ether, space and soul are eternal and all-pervading.
The four kinds of paramanus are infinitesimally small and eternal.
These the six categories according to the Vaiseshika Doctrine.


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